Advanced Distribution Automation
Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) is a term coined by the IntelliGrid project in North America to describe the extension of intelligent control over electrical power grid functions to the distribution level and beyond. It is related to distribution automation that can be enabled via the smart grid. The electrical power grid is typically separated logically into transmission systems and distribution systems. Electric power transmission systems typically operate above 110kV, whereas Electricity distribution systems operate at lower voltages. Normally, electric utilities with SCADA systems have extensive control over transmission-level equipment, and increasing control over distribution-level equipment via distribution automation. However, they often are unable to control smaller entities such as Distributed energy resources (DERs), buildings, and homes. It may be advantageous to extend control networks to these systems for a number of reasons:Distributed generation is increasingly important in power grids around the world. This generation can help to support local power grids in the presence of blackouts, and ease the load on long-distance transmission lines, but it can also destabilize the grid if not managed correctly". Usually, utility control centers are unable to manage distributed generators directly, and this may be a valuable capability in the future. Industrial and residential loads are increasingly controlled through demand response. For example, during periods of peak electrical demand in the summer, the utility control centers may be able to raise the thermostats of houses enrolled in a load reduction program, to temporarily decrease electrical demand from a large number of customers without significantly affecting their comfort. Customers are usually compensated for their participation in such programs. To enable demand side management, where homes, businesses, and even electric vehicles may be able to receive real-time pricing (RTP) signals from their distribution companies and dynamically adjust their own energy consumption profiles to minimize costs. This would also preserve customer autonomy and mitigate privacy issues. To further the penetration and quality of self-healing, which reduces or eliminates outage time through the use of sensor and control systems embedded in the distribution system.Read more on Wikipedia
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